Dr. Stephen D. McCormick

1977: B.S. Bates College
1983: Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

1983-1986: St. Andrews Biological Station, New Brunswick, Canada
1986-1990: Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley
1990: Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo

Research Interests
I am interested in the environmental and hormonal control of osmoregulation, development, growth and reproduction in fish. Much of this work is applied to the conservation and restoration of anadromous fish. Recent research includes four major areas:

1) Hormonal control of salinity tolerance and mechanisms of ion transport in anadromous fish (salmon, alewife, shad, sturgeon and lamprey).
2) Environmental regulation of migratory behavior and physiology in anadromous fish.
3) Disruption of normal development by contaminants, including endocrine disruptors and acidification.
4) Impact of temperature on stress, growth and migration in brook trout and Atlantic salmon.


Bayse, S.M., McCormick, S.D. and Castro-Santos, T. 2019. How lipid content and temperature affect American shad (Alosa sapidissima) attempt rate and sprint swimming: implications for overcoming migration barriers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (in press)


Lema, S.C., Washburn, E.H., Crowley, M.E., Carvalho, P.G., Egelston, J.N. and McCormick, S.D. 2019. Evidence for a role of arginine vasotocin (AVT) receptors in the gill during salinity acclimation by euryhaline teleost fish. American Journal of Physiology; Integrative, Regulatory and Comparative Physiology (in press)


Carey, M.P., Keith, K.D., Schelske, M., Lean, C., McCormick, S.D., Regish, A., and Zimmerman, C.E. 2019. Energy depletion and stress levels of Sockeye Salmon migrating at the northern edge of their distribution. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (in press)


Fleming, M.S., Maugars, G., Lafont, A.-G., Rancon, J., Fontaine, R., Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R., Weltzien, F.A., Yebra-Pimentel, E.S., Dirks, R., McCormick, S.D., Rousseau, K, Martin, P. and  Dufour, S. 2019. Functional divergence of thyrotropin beta-subunit paralogs gives new insights into salmon smoltification metamorphosis. Scientific Reports 9:4561


McCormick, S.D., Regish, A.M., Ardren, W.R., Björnsson, B.Th. and Bernier, N.J. 2019. The evolutionary consequences for seawater performance and its hormonal control when anadromous Atlantic salmon become landlocked. Scientific Reports 9:968

McCormick, S.D. and Regish, A.M. 2018. Effects of ocean acidification on salinity tolerance and seawater growth of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Journal of Fish Biology 93: 560-566

Vargas-Chacoff, L., Regish, A.M., Weinstock, A. and McCormick, S.D. 2018. Effects of elevated temperature on osmoregulation and stress responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in fresh water and seawater. Journal of Fish Biology 93: 550-559


Breves, J.P., Duffy, T.A., Einarsdottir, I.E., Björnsson, B.T. and McCormick, S.D. 2018. In vivo effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol on insulin-like growth-factor binding proteins (igfbps) in Atlantic salmon. Aquatic Toxicology 203: 28-39


Lema, S.C., Carvalho, P.G., Egelston, J.N., Kelly, J.T. and McCormick, S.D. 2018. Dynamics of gene expression responses for ion transport proteins and aquaporins in the gill of a euryhaline pupfish during freshwater and high salinity acclimation. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 91: 1148-1171

Regish, A.M, Kelly, J.T., O'Dea, M.F., and McCormick, S.D. 2018. Sensitivity of Na+/K+-ATPase isoforms to acid and aluminum explains differential effects on Atlantic salmon osmoregulation in fresh water and seawater. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 75: 1319-1328


Shaughnessy, C.A. and McCormick, S.D. 2018. Reduced thermal tolerance during salinity acclimation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) can be rescued by prior treatment with cortisol. Journal of Experimental Biology 221, jeb169557

Christensen, A.K., Regish, A.M. and McCormick, S. D. 2018. Shifts in the relationship between mRNA and protein abundance of gill ion transporters during smolt development and seawater acclimation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 221: 63-73


Bayse, S.M., Regish, A.M. and McCormick, S. D. 2018. Proximate composition, lipid utilization and validation of a non-lethal method to determine lipid content in migrating American shad Alosa sapidissima. Journal of Fish Biology 92: 1832–1848


Velotta, J.P., McCormick, S.D., Jones, A.W. and Schultz, E.T. 2018. Reduced swimming performance repeatedly evolves on loss of migration in landlocked populations of alewife. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 91: 814-825


Galt, N.J., McCormick, S.D., Froehlich, J.M. and Biga, P.R. 2018. A comparative evaluation of crowding stress on muscle HSP90 and myostatin expression in salmonids. Aquaculture 483: 141-148

Hollemaa, H.M., Kneebone, J., McCormick, S.D., Skomal, G.B. and Danylchuk, A.J. 2017. Movement patterns of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in a tidal coastal embayment in New England. Fisheries Research 187:168-177


Velotta, J.P., Wegrzyn, J.L., Ginzburg, S., Kang, L., Czesny, S., O'Neill, R.J., McCormick, S.D., Michalak, P., and Schultz, E.T. 2017. Transcriptomic imprints of adaptation to fresh water: parallel evolution of osmoregulatory gene expression in the alewife. Molecular Ecology 26: 831-848

Breves, J.P., Fujimoto, C.K., Phipps-Costin, S.K., Einarsdottir, I.E., Björnsson, B.Th. and McCormick, S.D. 2017. Variation in branchial expression among insulin-like growth-factor binding proteins (igfbps) during Atlantic salmon smoltification and seawater exposure. BMC Physiology 17: 2

McCormick, S.D. and Romero, L.M. 2017. Conservation endocrinology. BioScience 67: 429-442

Nyqvist, D., McCormick, S.D., Greenberg, L., Ardren, W.R., Bergman, E., Calles, O. and Castro-Santos, T. 2017. Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts. North American journal of Fisheries Management 34:816-828

Morshedian, A., Toomey, M.B., Pollock, G.E., Frederiksen, R., Enright, J.M., McCormick, S.D., Cornwall, M.C., Fain, G.L., and Corbo, J.C. 2017. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-Aswitch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity. Royal Society Open Science 4: 170362

Zak, M.A., Regish, A.M., McCormick, S.D., and Manson, R.G. 2017. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). General and Comparative Endocrinology 247: 215-222

Chadwick, J.G. and McCormick, S.D. 2017. Upper thermal limits of growth in brook trout and their relationship to stress physiology. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3976-3987

Balk, L. Hägerroth, P.-A. Gustavsson, H., Sigg, L., Åkerman, G., Muñoz, Y.R., Honeyfield, D.C. Tjärnlund, U., Oliveira, K., Ström, K., McCormick, S.D., Karlsson, S., Ström, M., Manen, M., Berg, A.-L., Halldórsson, H.P., Strömquist, J., Collier, T.K., Börjeson, H., Mörner, T. and Hansson, T. 2016. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife. Scientific Reports 6, 38821

Ferreira-Martins, D., McCormick, S.D., Campos, A., Lopes-Marques, M, Osório, H., Coimbra, J, Castro, L. F. C. and Wilson, J.M. 2016. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey. Scientific Reports 6, 33954.

Divino, J.N., Monette, M.Y., McCormick, S.D., Yancey, P.H., Flannery, K.G., Bell, M.A., Rollins, J.L., von Hippel, F.A., and Schultz, E.T. 2016. Osmoregulatory physiology and rapid evolution of salinity tolerance in recently lake-introduced Threespine Stickleback. Evolution and Ecology Research 17: 179-201.

Breves, J.P., Phipps-Costin, S.K., Fujimoto, C.K., Einarsdottir, I.E., Regish, A.M., Björnsson, B.Th. and McCormick, S.D. 2016. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses to food restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts. General and Comparative Endocrinology 233: 79-87.

Velotta, J.P., McCormick, S.D. and Schultz, E.T. 2015. Trade-offs in osmoregulation and parallel shifts in molecular function following ecological transitions to freshwater in the Alewife. Evolution 69: 2676-2688.

Kelly, J.T., Lerner, D. T., O’Dea, M. F., Regish, A. M., Monette, M.Y., Hawkes, J.P., Nislow, K.H. and McCormick, S.D. 2015. Evidence for episodic acidification impacts on migrating Atlantic salmon smolts in the United States. Journal of Fish Biology 87: 1129-1146.

Chadwick, J.G., Nislow, K. and McCormick, S.D. 2015. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish. Conservation Physiology 3:1-12.

McCormick, S.D., Haro, A., Lerner, D.T., O’Dea, M.F. and Regish, A.M. 2014. Migratory patterns of hatchery- and stream-reared Atlantic salmon smolts in the Connecticut River, USA. Journal of Fish Biology 85:1005-1022.

Zydlewski, G.B., Stich, D.S. and McCormick, S.D. 2014. Photoperiod control of downstream movements of Atlantic salmon smolts. Journal of Fish Biology 85:1023-1041.

Sundh, H., Nilsen, T. O., Lindström, J., Hasselberg-Frank, L., Stefansson, S. O., McCormick, S.D. and Sundell, K. 2014. Development of intestinal ion-transporting mechanisms during smoltification and seawater acclimation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Journal of Fish Biology 85:1227-1252.

Duffy, T.A., Iwanowicz, L. and McCormick, S.D. 2014. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquatic Toxicology 152:1-10.

Breves, J.P., McCormick, S.D. and Karlstrom, R.O. 2014. Prolactin and teleost ionocytes: new insights into cellular and molecular targets of prolactin in vertebrate epithelia. General and Comparative Endocrinology 203: 21-28.

Michalak, K., Czesny, S., Epifanio, J., Snyder, R.J., Schultz, E.T., Velotta, J.P., McCormick, S.D., Brown, B.L., Santopietro, G., Michalak, P. 2014. Beta-thymosin gene polymorphism associated with freshwater invasiveness of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Journal of Experimental Zoology 321A: 233-240.

Velotta, J.P., Schultz, E.T., McCormick, S.D., O’Neill, R.J. 2014. Relaxed selection causes microevolution of seawater osmoregulation and gene expression in landlocked Alewives. Oecologia 175: 1081-1092.

Butler, M.W., Stahlschmidt, Z.R., Ardia, D.R., Davies, S., Davis, J.R., Guillette Jr., L.J., Johnson, N., McCormick, S.D., McGraw, K.J., and DeNardo, D.F. 2013 Thermal sensitivity of immune function: evidence against a generalist-specialist tradeoff among endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. American Naturalist 181:761-774.

Breves, J.P., Serizier, S.B., Goffin, V., McCormick, S.D. and Karlstrom, R.O. 2013. Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill. Cellular and Molecular Endocrinology 369: 98-106.

Takei, Y. and McCormick, S.D. 2013. Hormonal control of fish euryhalinity. In: Fish Physiology vol. 32 Euryhaline Fishes, edited by S. D. McCormick, C. J. Brauner, and A. P. Farrell. Amsterdam, Academic Press. Pp 69-123.

Schultz, E.T. and McCormick, S.D. 2013. Euryhalinity in an Evolutionary Context. In: Fish Physiology vol. 32 Euryhaline Fishes, edited by S. D. McCormick, C. J. Brauner, and A. P. Farrell, Amsterdam. Academic Press. Pp 477-533.

McCormick, S.D. 2013. Smolt Physiology and Endocrinology. In: Fish Physiology vol. 32 Euryhaline Fishes, edited by S. D. McCormick, C. J. Brauner, and A. P. Farrell, Amsterdam. Academic Press. Pp 199-251.

McCormick, S.D., A. M. Regish, A. K. Christensen, and B. Th. Björnsson. 2013. Differential regulation of sodium-potassium pump isoforms during smolt development and seawater exposure of Atlantic salmon. Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 1142-1151.

McCormick, S.D., T. Sheehan, B. Th. Björnsson, C. Lipsky, J. Kocik, A. M. Regish, and M. F. O'Dea. 2013. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70: 105-118.

Hiroi, J. and McCormick, S.D. 2012. New insights into gill ionocyte and ion transporter function in euryhaline and diadromous fish. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 184: 257-268.

Robertson, L.S. and McCormick, S.D. 2012. Transcriptional profiling of the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology D-Genomics and Proteomics 7: 351-360.

Lerner, D.T., Sheridan, M.A. and McCormick, S.D. 2012. Estrogenic compounds decrease growth hormone receptor abundance and alter osmoregulation in Atlantic salmon. General and Comparative Endocrinology 179: 196-204.

Robertson, L.S. and McCormick, S.D. 2012. The effect of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts. Aquatic Toxicology 122-123:36-43.

Christensen, A.K., Hiroi, J., Schultz, E.T., and McCormick, S.D. 2012. Branchial ionocyte organization and ion-transport protein expression in juvenile alewives acclimated to freshwater or seawater. Journal of Experimental Biology 215:642-652.

Iwanowicz, L.R., Blazer, V.S., Hitt, N.P., McCormick, S.D., DeVault, D.S., and Ottinger, C.A. 2012. Histologic, immunologic and endocrine biomarkers indicate contaminant effects in fishes of the Ashtabula River. Ecotoxicology 21: 165-182.

Yada, T, McCormick, S.D. and Hyodo, S. 2012. Effects of environmental salinity, biopsy, and GH and IGF-1 administration on the expression of immune and osmoregulatory genes in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 363: 177-183.

McCormick, S.D., Lernrer, D.T., Regish, A.M., O’Dea, M.F. and Monette, M.Y. 2012. Thresholds for short-term acid and aluminum impacts on Atlantic salmon smolts. Aquaculture 363: 224-231.

Hanson, A., Kittilson, J., McCormick, S.D. and Sheridan, M. 2012. Effects of environmental estrogens on the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth factor and seawater adaptation of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 363: 241-247.

Steffanson, S., Hangland, M. B.Th. Bjornsson, McCormick, S.D., M. Holm, L.O. Ebbesson, J. Chr. Holst, T.O. Nilsen. 2012. Growth, osmoregulation and endocrine changes in wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during marine migration. Aquaculture 363: 127-136.

Liebich, T., McCormick, S.D., Kircheis, D., Johnson, K., Regal, R., and Hrabik, T. 2011. Water chemistry and its impacts on the physiology and survival of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in eastern Maine, USA. Journal of Fish Biology 79: 502-519.

McCormick, S.D. 2011. The Hormonal Control of Osmoregulation in Teleost Fish. In: Farrell A.P., (ed.), Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology: From Genome to Environment, Volume 2, pp. 1466-1473. San Diego: Academic Press.

Björnsson, B.Th., Stefansson, S.O., and McCormick, S.D. 2011. Environmental Endocrinology of salmon smoltification. General and Comparative Endocrinology 170: 290-298.

Close, D., McCormick, S.D., and Li, W. 2010. 11-deoxycortisol is a corticosteroid hormone in lamprey. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 13942-13947.

Monette, M.Y., Yada, T., Matey, V., and McCormick, S.D. 2010. Physiological, molecular and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum. Aquatic Toxicology 99: 17-32.

McCormick, S.D., Regish, A. and Christensen, A. 2009. Distinct freshwater and seawater isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in gill chloride cells of Atlantic salmon. Journal of Experimental Biology 212: 3994-4001.

Husak, J.F., Irschick, D.J., McCormick, S.D., and Moore, I.T. 2009. Hormonal regulation of whole-animal performance: implications for selection. Integrative and Comparative Biology 46: 349-353.

McCormick, S.D. 2009. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon. Integrative and Comparative Biology 46: 408-422.

Frank, H.J., Mather, M.E., Smith, J.M., Muth, R.M., Finn, J.T. and McCormick, S.D. 2009. What is "fallback"?: metrics needed to assess telemetry tag effects on anadromous fish behavior. Hydrobiologia 635: 237-249.

McCormick, S.D., D.T. Lerner, M.Y. Monette, K. Nieves-Puigdoller, J.T. Kelly and B.Th. Björnsson. 2009. Taking it with you when you go: how perturbations to the freshwater environment, including temperature, dams and contaminants, affects seawater performance of anadromous fish. Challenges For Diadromous Fishes in a Dynamic Global Environment. American Fisheries Society Symposium 69, 195-214. Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Editors: Haro, A. J., K. L. Smith, R. A. Rulifson, C. M. Moffitt, R. J. Klauda, M. J. Dadswell, R. A. Cunjak, J. E. Cooper, K. L. Beal, and T. S. Avery.

Denver, R.J., Hopkins, P.M., McCormick, S.D., Propper, C.R., Riddiford, J.C., Sower, S.A. and Wingfield, J.C. 2009. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49: 339-348.

Iwanowicz, L.R., Blazer, V.S., McCormick, S.D., Van Veld, P.A., and Ottinger, C.A. 2009. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus. Aquatic Toxicology 93: 70-82.

McCormick, S.D., Keyes, A., Monette, M.Y. and Nislow, K.H. 2009. Impacts of episodic acidification on in-stream survival and physiological impairment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66: 394-403.

Smith, J.M., Mather, M.E., Frank, H.J., Muth, R.M., Finn, J.T. and McCormick, S.D. 2009. Evaluation of a gastric radio tag insertion technique for anadromous river herring. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 29: 367-377.

Monette, M.Y., Björnsson, B.Th. and McCormick, S.D. 2008. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status. General and Comparative Endocrinology 158: 122-130.

Hiroi, J., Yasumasu, S., McCormick, S.D., Hwang, P.-P. and Kaneko, T. 2008. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 2584-2500.

Stefansson, S.O., Björnsson, B.Th., Ebbesson, L.O.E. and McCormick, S.D. 2008. Smoltification. In: Fish Larval Physiology (Finn, R.N. and Kapoor, B.G., Eds). Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield (NH) & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi ISBN 978-1-57808-388-6.

McCormick, S.D., O’Dea, M. and Regish, A. Shrimpton, J.M.. 2008. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon. General and Comparative Endocrinology 157: 35-40.

Reis-Santos, P., McCormick, S.D. and Wilson, J.M. 2008. Ionoregulatory changes during metamorphosis and salinity exposure of juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.). Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 978-988.

Nilsen, T.O., Ebbesson, L.O.E., Kiilerich,P., Björnsson, B.Th., Madsen, S.S., McCormick, S.D. and Stefansson, S.O. 2007. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). General and Comparative Endocrinology 155: 762-772.

Monette, M.Y. and McCormick, S.D. 2008. Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: a direct comparison of parr and smolts. Aquatic Toxicology 86(2): 216-226.

Nilsen, T.O., Ebbesson, L.O.E., Stefansson, S.O., Madsen, S.S., McCormick, S.D., Andersson, E., Björnsson, B.Th., and Prunet, P. 2007. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase α- and β-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 2885-2896.

Poppinga, J., Kittilson, J., McCormick, S.D. and Sheridan, M.A. 2007. Effects of somatostatin on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis and seawater adaptation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 273: 312-319.

Mackie, P.M., Gharbi,K., Ballantyne, J.S., McCormick, S.D. and P.A. Wright. 2007. Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR gill expression after seawater transfer in smolts (0+) of different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families. Aquaculture 272: 625-635.

Mancera, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2007. Role of prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cortisol in fish osmoregulation. In: Fish Osmoregulation (Baldisserotto B., Mancera J.M., and Kapoor B.G., Eds). Sciencie Publishers, Inc. Enfield (NH) & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi ISBN 978-1-57808-447-0.

Hiroi, J., McCormick, S.D. 2007. Variation in salinity tolerance, gill Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl– cotransporter and mitochondrion-rich cell distribution among three salmonids Salvelinus namaycushSalvelinus fontinalisSalmo salar. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 1015-1024.

Nieves-Puigdoller, K., Björnsson, B.Th., McCormick, S.D. 2007. Detrimental effects of hexazinone and atrazine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt. Aquatic Toxicology 84: 27-37.

Lerner, D.T., Björnsson, B.Th., McCormick, S.D. 2007. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17ß-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts. Environmental Science & Technology 41: 4479-4485.

Stefansson, S.O., Nilsen, T.O., Ebbesson, L.O.E., Wargelius, A., Madsen, S.S.; Andersson, E.; Björnsson, B.Th., and McCormick, S.D. 2007. Molecular mechanisms of continuous light inhibition of Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation. Aquaculture 273: 235-245.

McCormick, S.D., Shrimpton, J.M., Moriyama, S., Björnsson, B.Th. 2007. Differential hormonal responses of Atlantic salmon parr and smolt to increased daylength: a possible developmental basis for smolting. Aquaculture 273: 337-344.

Lerner, D.T., Björnsson, B.Th., McCormick, S.D. 2007. Aqueous exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17B-estradiol increases stress sensitivity and disrupts ion regulatory ability of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26: 1433-1440.

Lerner, D.T., Björnsson, B.Th., McCormick, S.D. 2006. Effects of aqueous exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Arocolor 1254) on physiology and behavior of smolt development of Atlantic salmon. Aquatic Toxicology 81: 329-336.

Sakamoto, T. and McCormick, S.D. 2006. Role of prolactin and growth hormone in osmoregulation of teleost fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology 147: 24-30.

McCormick, S.D. and Bradshaw, D. 2006. Hormonal control of salt and water balance in vertebrates. General and Comparative Endocrinology 147: 3-8.

Rees, C.B., McCormick, S.D. and Li, W. 2005. A non-lethal method to estimate CYP1A expression in laboratory and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C 141: 217-224.

Hiroi, J., McCormick, S.D., Ohtani-Kaneko, R. And Kaneko, T. 2005. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunoflourescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- contransporter and CFTR anion channel. Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 2023-2036.

Luo, Q., Matoshi, B., Ando, H., Kitahashi, T., Bhandari, R.K., McCormick, S.D. and Urano, A. 2005. Distinct effects of 4-nonylphenol and estrogen-17ß on expression of estrogen receptor a gene in smolting sockeye salmon. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 140: 123-130.

McCormick, S.D., O'Dea, M.F., Moeckel, A.M., Lerner, D.T. and Björnsson, B.Th. 2005. Endocrine disruption of parr-smolt transformation and seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon by 4-nonylphenol and 17 -estradiol. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142: 280-288.

Reinecke, M., Björnsson, B.Th., Dickhoff, W.W., McCormick, S.D., Navarro, I., Power, D.M. and Guitierrez, J. 2005. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors in fish: Where are we and where to go. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142: 20-24.

Iwanowicz, L.R., Lerner, D.T., Blazer, V.S. and McCormick, S.D. 2005. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation. Aquatic Toxicology 72: 305-314.

Jackson, L.F., McCormick, S.D., Madsen, S.S., Swanson, P. and Sullivan, C.V. 2005. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B 140: 211-218.

Marshall, W.S., Cozzi, R.R.F., Pelis, R.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2005. Cortisol receptor blockade and seawater adaptation in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Experimental Zoology 303A: 132-142.

Zydlewdski, G.B., Haro, A.J., and McCormick, S.D. 2005. Evidence for cumulative temperature as an initiating and terminating factor in downstream migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 68-78.

Handeland, S.O., Wilkinson, E., Sveinsbo, B., McCormick, S.D. and Stefansson, S.O. 2004. Temperature influence on the development and loss of seawater tolerance in two fast-growing strains of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 233: 513-529.

Zydlewski, J., McCormick, S.D. and Kunkel, J. 2003. Late migration and seawater entry is physiologically disadvantageous for American shad juveniles. Journal of Fish Biology 63, 1521-1537.

McCormick, S.D., Sundell, K., Björnsson, B.Th, Brown, C.L. and Hiroi, J. 2003. Influence of salinity on the localization of Na+,K+-ATPase, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and CFTR anion channel in chloride cells of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 4575-4583.

Pelis, R.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2003. Fin development in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 220: 525-536.

Stefansson, S.O., Björnsson, B.Th., Sundell, K., Nyhammer, G. and McCormick, S.D. 2003. Physiological characteristics of wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during estuarine and coastal migration. Journal of Fish Biology 63: 942-955.

Stefansson, S.O., McGinnity, P., Björnsson, B.Th., Schreck, C.B. and McCormick, S.D. 2003. The importance of smolt development to salmon conservation, culture and management: perspectives from the 6th International Workshop on Salmonid Smoltification. Aquaculture 222: 15-28.

Shrimpton, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2003. Environmental and endocrine control of gill corticosteroid receptor number and affinity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during smolting. Aquaculture 222: 83-99.

Singer, T.D., Finstad, B., McCormick, S.D., Wiseman, S.B., Schulte, P.M. and McKinley, R.S. 2003. Interactive effects of cortisol treatment and ambient seawater challenge on gill Na+,K+-ATPase and CFTR expression in two strains of Atlantic salmon smolts. Aquaculture 222: 15-28.

McCormick, S.D., O'Dea, M.F., Moeckel, A.M., Björnsson, B.Th. 2003. Endocrine and physiological changes in Atlantic salmon smolts following hatchery release. Aquaculture 222: 45-57.

Magee, J. A., Obedzinski, M., McCormick, S.D. and Kocik, J. F. 2003. Effects of episodic acidification on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 214-221.

Rees, C.B., McCormick, S.D., Vanden Heuvel, J.P. and Li, W. 2003. Quantitative analysis of CYP1A induction in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquatic Toxicology 62: 67-78.

McCormick, S.D., Shrimpton, J.M., Björnsson, B.Th. Moriyama, S. 2002. Effects of an advanced temperature cycle on smolt development and endocrinology indicate that temperature is not a zeitgeber for smolting in Atlantic salmon. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 3553-3560.

Shrimpton, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2002. Seasonal changes in androgen levels in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon and their relationship to smolting. Journal of Fish Biology 61: 1294-1304.

McCormick, S.D. 2001. Endocrine control of osmoregulation in teleost fish. American Zoologist 41: 781-794.

Magee, J.A., Haines, T.A., Kocik, J.F., Beland, K.F. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. Effects of acidity and aluminum on the physiology and migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon smolts in Maine, USA. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 130:881-886.

Zydlewski, J.D. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. Developmental and environmental regulation of chloride cells in young American shad, Alosa sapidissima. Journal of Experimental Zoology 290:73-87.

Shrimpton, J.M. Zydlewski, J.D. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. The stress response of juvenile American shad to handling and confinement is greater during migration in freshwater than in seawater. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130:1203-1210.

Zydlewski, G.B., Haro, A., Whalen, K.G. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. Performance of stationary and portable passive transponder detection systems for monitoring of fish movements. Journal of Fish Biology 58:1471-1475.

Leonard, J.B.K. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. Metabolic enzyme activity in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1585-1593.

Pelis, R.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. Effects of growth hormone and cortisol on Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter localization and abundance in the gills of Atlantic salmon. General and Comparative Endocrinology 124:134-143.

Pelis, R.M., Zydlewski, J. and McCormick, S.D. 2001. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location in Atlantic salmon: effects of seawater and smolting. American Journal of Physiology 280: R1844-R1852.

Shrimpton, J.M. Björnsson, B.Th. and McCormick, S.D. 2000. Can Atlantic salmon smolt twice? Endocrine and biochemical changes during smolting. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:1969-1976.

Mancera, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 2000. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Experimental Zoology 287:263-274.

Persson, P., Shrimpton, J.M., McCormick, S.D., Björnsson, B.Th. 2000. The presence of high-affinity, low-capacity estradiol 17B binding in rainbow trout scale indicates a possible endocrine route for the regulation of scale resorption. General and Comparative Endocrinology 120: 35-43.

McCormick, S.D., Björnsson, B.Th. Moriyama, S. 2000. Low temperature limits the regulatory control of photoperiod: endocrinology of smolting in Atlantic salmon. American Journal of Physiology 278: R1352-R1361.

Mancera, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. Influence of cortisol, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine on hypoosmoregulatory ability in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 21: 25-33.

McCormick, S.D., Cunjak, R.A., Dempson, B., O'Dea, M.F. and Carey, J.B. 1999. Temperature-related loss of smolt characteristics in Atlantic salmon in the wild. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56: 1649-1658.

Leonard, J.B.K. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. Metabolic rates in an anadromous clupeid, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Journal of Comparative Physiology 169: 287-295.

Leonard, J.B.K. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. The effect of migration distance on whole body and tissue-specific energy use in American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56: 1159-1171.

Whalen, K.G., Parrish, D.L. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. Migration timing of Atlantic salmon smolts relative to environmental and physiological factors. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128: 289-301.

Shrimpton, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. Responsiveness of gill Na+/K+-ATPase to cortisol is related to gill corticosteroid receptor concentration in juvenile rainbow trout. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 987-995.

Leonard, J.B.K. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. Changes in haematology during upstream migration in American shad. Journal of Fish Biology 20:163-179.

Leonard, J.B.K. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. The effect of migration distance and timing on metabolic enzyme activity in an anadromous clupeid, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 20:163-179.

Marshall, W.S., Emberley, T.R., Singer, T.D., Bryson, S.E. and McCormick, S.D. 1999. Time course of salinity adaptation in a strongly euryhaline estuarine teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus: A multiparameter approach. Journal of Experimental Biology 202:1535-1544.

Parrish, D.L., Behnke, R.J., Gephard, S.R., McCormick, S.D. and Reeves, G.H. 1998. Why aren't there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(Suppl. 1): 281-287.

McCormick, S.D., Hansen, L.P., Quinn, T.P. and Saunders, R.L. 1998. Movement, migration and smolting in Atlantic salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(Suppl. 1): 77-92.

Mancera, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 1998. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B 121: 43-48.

Shrimpton, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 1998. Seasonal differences in plasma cortisol and gill corticosteroid receptors in upper and lower mode juvenile Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 168: 205-219.

Carey, J.B. and McCormick, S.D. 1998. Atlantic salmon smolts are more responsive to handling and confinement stress than parr. Aquaculture 168: 237-253.

McCormick, S.D., Shrimpton, J.M., Björnsson, B.Th. Moriyama, S., Carey, J.B., O'Dea, M.F., and Sloan, K.E. 1998. Repeated acute stress reduces growth rate of Atlantic salmon parr and alters plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cortisol. Aquaculture 168: 221-235.

Shrimpton, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 1998. Regulation of gill cytosolic corticosteroid receptors in juvenile Atlantic salmon: Interaction effects of growth hormone with prolactin and triiodothyronine. General and Comparative Endocrinology 112: 262-274.

Mancera, J.M. and McCormick, S.D. 1998. Evidence for growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis regulation of seawater acclimation in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 111: 103-112.

Zydlewski, J. and McCormick, S.D. 1997. The loss of hyperosmoregulatory ability in migrating juvenile American shad, Alosa sapidissima. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2377-2387.

Zydlewski, J. and McCormick, S.D. 1997. The ontogeny of salinity tolerance in American shad, Alosa sapidissima. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 182-189.

McCormick, S.D., Shrimpton, J.M. and Zydlewski, J. 1997. Temperature effects on osmoregulatory physiology of anadromous fish. In: Global Warming: Implications for Freshwater and Marine Fish. Editors: C.M. Wood and D.G. McDonald. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 279-301.

Clarke, W.C., Saunders, R.L. and McCormick, S.D. 1996. Smolt Production. In: Principles of Salmonid Culture. Eds:W. Pennel and B.A. Barton. CRC Press, Elsevier. pp. 517-567.

McCormick, S.D. 1996. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on salinity tolerance and gill Na+,K+-ATPase in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): interaction with cortisol. General and Comparative Endocrinology 101: 3-11.

Young, G., McCormick, S.D., Björnsson, B.T. and Bern, H.A. 1995. Circulating growth hormone, cortisol and thyroxine levels after 24-hour seawater challenge of yearling coho salmon at different developmental stages. Aquaculture 136: 371-384.

McCormick, S.D., Björnsson, B.Th., Sheridan, M., Eilertson, C., Carey, J.B. and O'Dea, M. 1995. Increased daylength stimulates plasma growth hormone and gill Na+,K+-ATPase in Atlantic salmon. Journal of Comparative Physiology 165B: 245-254.

McCormick, S.D. 1995. Hormonal control of gill Na+,K+-ATPase and chloride cell function. In: Fish Physiology, Vol. 14, Cellular and Molecular Approaches to Fish Ionic Regulation. Ed.: C.M. Wood and T.J. Shuttleworth. Academic Press, New York. Pp. 285-315.

McCormick, S.D. 1994. Opercular membranes and skin. In: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Vol. III, Analytical Techniques. Ed.: P.W. Hochachka and T.P. Mommsen, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Chapter 20, pp 231-238.

Madsen, S.S., McCormick, S.D., Young, G., Endersen, J.S., Nishioka, R.S. and Bern, H.A. 1994. Physiology of seawater acclimation in the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 13:1-11.

Tsai, P.I., Madsen, S.S., McCormick, S.D. and Bern, H.A. 1994. Endocrine control of cartilage growth in coho salmon: GH influence in vivo on the response to IGF-I in vitro. Zoological Science 11: 299-303.

McCormick, S.D. and Björnsson, B.Th. 1994. Physiological and hormonal differences among Atlantic salmon migrants and non-migrants reared in the wild, and hatchery smolts. Aquaculture 121: 235-244.

McCormick, S.D. 1994. Ontogeny and evolution of salinity tolerance in anadromous salmonids: hormones and heterochrony. Estuaries 17: 26-33.

Sakamoto,T., McCormick, S.D. and Hirano, T. 1993. Osmoregulatory actions of growth hormone and its mode of action in salmonids: A review. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 11: 155-164.

McCormick, S.D. 1993. Methods for non-lethal gill biopsy and measurement of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 656-658.

Yoshikawa, J.S.M., McCormick, S.D., Young, G. and Bern, H.A. 1993. Effects of salinity on chloride cell morphology and density, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the teleost Gillichthys mirabilis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 105: 311-317.

McCormick, S.D., S. Hasegawa and T. Hirano. 1992. Calcium uptake in the skin of a fresh water teleost. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89: 3635-3638.

McCormick, S.D., Tsai, P.I., Kelley, K.M., Nishioka, R.S. and Bern, H.A. 1992. Stimulation of coho salmon growth by insulin-like growth factor I. General and Comparative Endocrinology 86: 398-406.

McCormick, S.D., Tsai, P.I., Kelley, K.M., Nishioka, R.S. and Bern, H.A. 1991. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake by branchial cartilage of coho salmon: role of IGF-I. Journal of Experimental Zoology 262: 166-171.

Bern, H.A., McCormick, S.D., Kelley, K.M., Gray, E.S., Nishioka, R.S., Madsen, S.S. and Tsai, P.I. 1991. Insulin-like growth factors "under water": role in growth and function of fish and other poikilothermic vertebrates. In: Modern Concepts of Insulin-Like Growth Factors. Ed.: E.M. Spencer. Elsevier Press, New York. Pp. 85-96.

McCormick, S.D., Dickhoff, W.W., Duston, J., Nishioka, R.S. and Bern, H.A. 1991. Developmental differences in the responsiveness of gill Na+,K+-ATPase to cortisol in salmonids. General and Comparative Endocrinology 84: 308-317.

McCormick, S.D., T. Sakamoto, S. Hasegawa and T. Hirano. 1991. Osmoregulatory actions of insulin-like growth factor I in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Endocrinology 130: 87-92.

Herndon, T., S.D. McCormick and H.A. Bern. 1991. Effects of prolactin on chloride cells in opercular membrane of seawater-adapted tilapia. General and Comparative Endocrinology 83: 283-289.

McCormick, S.D. 1990. Cortisol directly stimulates differentiation of chloride cells in tilapia opercular membrane (Oreochromis mossambicus). American Journal Physiology 259: R857-R863.

McCormick, S.D. 1990. Fluorescent labelling of Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells using a fluorescent derivative of ouabain. Cell and Tissue Research 260: 529-533.

McCormick, S.D. and R.L. Saunders. 1990. Influence of ration level and salinity on circulating levels of thyroid hormones in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). General and Comparative Endocrinology 78: 224-230.

Montgomery, W.L., S.D. McCormick, R.J. Naiman, F.G. Whoriskey and G. Black. 1989. Migration and use of marine resources by brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Moisie River, Quebec. Polish Archives of Hydrobiology 37: 43-61.

McCormick, S.D., R.L. Saunders and A.D. MacIntyre. 1989. The effect of salinity and ration level on growth rate and conversion efficiency in Atlantic salmon smolts. Aquaculture 82: 173-180.

McCormick, S.D. and H.A. Bern. 1989. In vitro stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and ouabain binding by cortisol in coho salmon gill. American Journal Physiology 256: R707-R715.

McCormick, S.D., C.D. Moyes and J.S. Ballantyne. 1989. Influence of salinity on the energetics of gill and kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 6: 243-254.

McCormick, S.D., R.L. Saunders and A.D. MacIntyre. 1989. Mitochondrial enzyme activity, and ion regulation during parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 6: 231-241.

Young, P.S., S.D. McCormick, J.R. Demarest, R.J. Lin, R.S. Nishioka, and H.A. Bern. 1988. Effects of salinity, hypophysectomy and prolactin on whole-animal transepithelial potential in the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 71: 389-397.

Wildish, D.J., D.D. Kristmanson, R.L. Hoar, A.M. DeCoste, S.D. McCormick and A.W. White. 1987. Giant scallop feeding and growth response to flow. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 113: 207-220.

Naiman, R.J., S.D. McCormick, W.L. Montgomery and R. Morin. 1987. Anadromous brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis: opportunities and constraints for population enhancement. Marine Fisheries Review 49: 1-13.

McCormick, S.D., R.L. Saunders, E.B. Henderson and P.R. Harmon. 1987. Photoperiod control of parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): changes in salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and plasma thyroid hormones. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 1462-1468.

Dutil, J.-D., M. Besner and S.D. McCormick. 1987. Osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory changes and associated mortalities during the transition of maturing American eels to a marine environment. Common Strategies of Anadromous and Catadromous Fishes. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 1: 175-190.

McCormick, S.D. and R.L. Saunders. 1987. Preparatory physiological adaptations for marine life in salmonids: osmoregulation, growth and metabolism. Common Strategies of Anadromous and Catadromous Fishes. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 1: 211-229.

Saunders, R.L., S.D. McCormick, E.B. Henderson, J.G. Eales and C.E. Johnston. 1985. The effect of orally administered 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine on growth and salinity tolerance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 45: 143-156.

McCormick, S.D., R.J. Naiman and E.T. Montgomery. 1985. Physiological smolt characteristics of anadromous and non-anadromous brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 529-538.

McCormick, S.D. and R.J. Naiman. 1985. Hypoosmoregulation in an anadromous teleost: influence of sex and maturation. Journal of Experimental Zoology 234: 193-198.

McCormick, S.D. and R.J. Naiman. 1985. Some determinants of maturation in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Aquaculture 43: 269-278.

McCormick, S.D. and R.J. Naiman. 1984. Osmoregulation in the brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. II. Effects of size, age and photoperiod on seawater survival and ionic regulation. Compartive Biochemistry and Physiology 79A: 17-28.

McCormick, S.D. and R.J. Naiman. 1984. Osmoregulation in the brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. I. Diel, photoperiod and growth related physiological changes in freshwater. Compartive Biochemistry and Physiology 79A: 7-16.

Montgomery, W.L., S.D. McCormick, R.J. Naiman, F.G. Whoriskey Jr. and G.A. Black. 1983. Spring migratory synchrony of salmonid, catostomid and cyprinid fishes in Riviere a la Truite, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 2495-2502.


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